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October 2000 ē No. 272

 

2000 REGIONAL BARLEY AND COMMON AND DURUM WHEAT PERFORMANCE TESTS IN CALIFORNIA

L.F. Jackson2, J. Dubcovsky3, L.W. Gallagher3, R.L. Wennig4, J. Heaton4, H. Vogt4, L.K. Gibbs4, D. Kirby5, M. Canevari6, H. Carlson6, T. Kearney6, B. Marsh6, D. Munier6, C. Mutters6, S. Orloff6, J. Schmierer6, R. Vargas6, J. Williams6, and S. Wright6

University of California Cooperative Extension cereal evaluation tests were conducted in the intermountain valleys of northeastern California; the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Imperial Valleys; and in the south central coastal region in 2000. Entries in the tests included standard cultivars, new and soon-to-be released cultivars, and advanced breeding lines from both public and private breeding programs. Winter barley (8 entries) was evaluated at one location; fall-sown spring barley (23 entries), at 6 locations; and spring-sown spring barley (28 entries), at two locations. Winter wheat (18 entries) was evaluated at one location; fall-sown spring wheat (59 entries), at 12 locations; durum wheat (32 entries), at 5 locations; and spring-sown spring wheat (22 entries), at two locations.

Tests were conducted at University of California Field Stations or in fields of cooperating growers. Tests were sown at seeding rates of 1.2 million seeds per acre for common and durum wheat tests if irrigation was planned (requiring from 94 to 149 lb/acre for common wheat and from 88 to 176 lb/acre for durum wheat, depending on the entry) and at 1.0 million seeds per acre for rainfed wheat and all barley tests (requiring from 78 to 124 lb/acre for common wheat and 86 to 113 lb/acre for barley). Randomized complete block designs with four replications were used. Each plot was six drill rows wide (6-inch row spacing) and 25 feet long, except at the UC Desert Research and Extension Center (Imperial) where plots were 16 feet long and at the UC Intermountain Research and Extension Center (Tulelake) where plots were nine drill rows (5 feet) wide. Grain was harvested with a Wintersteiger Seedmaster Universal 150 plot combine. Foliar diseases were assessed at the soft-to-medium dough stage of growth by estimating the percentages of areas of penultimate leaves (flag-1 leaf) affected. BYD assessments, however, were based on the percentage of plants showing symptoms. Black point was assessed on grain samples of durum wheat after harvest. Yield, test weight, kernel weight, plant height, days to heading and maturity, lodging, shattering, disease reaction, and grain quality were determined as indicated in the tables. Information regarding each site is given in Table 1.

The small grain crop for the 2000 season in California included 503,823 planted acres of wheat other than durum, 98,016 acres of durum wheat, 130,000 acres of barley, and 265,000 acres of oat. Of the wheat acreage, 24.5% was in the Sacramento Valley, 55.7% was in the San Joaquin Valley, 2.7% was in the Coast region, 13.8% was in southern California (primarily the Imperial Valley), and 3.2% was in Sierra and northern California. A substantial portion of the San Joaquin Valley wheat crop was harvested as forage (green-chop) for dairies. Leading wheat cultivars (non-durum) by acreage were Yecora Rojo (121,000 acres), RSI 5 (84,000 acres), Brooks (76,000 acres), and Express (77,000 acres). Those four cultivars accounted for over 71% of non-durum acreage. Yecora Rojo, Brooks, and RSI 5 predominated in the San Joaquin Valley while Express and RSI 5 predominated in the Sacramento Valley. Kronos was the leading durum wheat cultivar and accounted for 74% of the durum wheat acreage. Cool spring temperatures were favorable for grain fill, but the cool temperatures along with moisture from spring rains also promoted disease development, particularly of stripe rust. The wheat crop in the Sacramento Valley, the northern San Joaquin Valley, and particularly in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, suffered the most damage from stripe rust. The disease also occurred in commercial fields in the central and southern portions of the San Joaquin Valley, although in lower severity that in the more northern regions. In contrast to stripe rust, leaf rust occurred in low severities in commercial fields until late in the season. It eventually reached severities of up to 100%, however, on very susceptible cultivars at many test sites. Severe Septoria tritici blotch occurred on wheat in one area of the Sacramento Valley. In that region (near the Sacramento River in Sutter and Colusa counties) the disease was moderately severe even on previously resistant cultivars. Many of the formerly effective cultivars have resistance based on Stb 4, which has been overcome in several areas of the world. Barley stripe rust was severe on susceptible lines and cultivars in both the Sacramento Valley and the San Joaquin Valley. Resistance of UC 937, the new cultivar for fall sowing in the Central Valley, held up well. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred in high incidence in the 2000 season. One barley test site in the San Joaquin Valley (Madera) showed excellent contrasting symptoms between highly susceptible and resistant lines.

BARLEY

Winter barley. The intermountain winter barley test contained 8 entries, including one spring barley (Steptoe). Entries in the test, type of barley, their backgrounds, and seed sources are shown in Table 2. Yield and agronomic performance data are given in Table 3. Steptoe survived the winter but showed frost damage to spikes. Grain yields were high, ranging from 5160 to 7240 lb/acre. Lodging was severe at harvest for all entries except Steptoe. Stripe rust was severe on Steptoe. The stripe rust resistant cultivar Kold was the highest yielding. Kold and Strider were the highest yielding in the three-year period 1998-2000 (Table 4).

Fall-sown spring barley. The fall-sown spring barley test contained 23 entries, including 8 cultivars and 15 advanced lines. Entries in the test, type of barley, their backgrounds, sites of evaluation and seed sources are shown in Table 5.Yield and agronomic performance data are given in Tables 6-13. UC 476 and UC 603 were damaged by Hoelon herbicide at the Butte site. Stripe rust was severe on several entries (Arivat, UC 476, Nebula, APB A-27, WWW BA8017, and APB C-2) at one or more of the following sites: UC Davis, Madera, Kings, and San Luis Obispo. BYDV was severe on several entries (Arivat, Meltan, UCD 97-4286, and UCD PYT99 D-9) at the Butte, UC Davis, and/or Madera sites. Lodging was severe on several entries (Arivat, UCD 97-4286, APB C2, and APB C-23) at the Kings site. Average yields ranged from 4120 lb/acre at the rainfed San Luis Obispo site to 6000 lb/acre at the Butte site. Entries UCD PYT99 C-3 and UCD PYT99 A-13 were highest yielding in the Sacramento Valley; entries APB A-20, UCD PYT99 A-19, and APB A-7, in the San Joaquin Valley; and entries UCD 97-4286 and UC 933, in rainfed sites. In the three-year period 1998-2000, entries APB A-20 and UC 933 were the highest yielding in the Sacramento Valley; entries APB A-20 and UC 937, in the San Joaquin Valley; and entry UC 933, in rainfed sites (Table 13).

Spring-sown spring barley. The intermountain spring barley test contained 28 entries, including 16 cultivars and 12 advanced lines. Entries in the test, type of barley, their backgrounds, and seed sources are shown in Table 14. Yield and agronomic performance data are given in Tables 15-17. Drought stress occurred periodically during the season at the Siskiyou site. Moderate levels of stripe rust occurred at the Tulelake site (where Steptoe was the only entry to show high stripe rust severity). Average yields ranged from 3580 lb/acre at the Siskiyou site to 7320 lb/acre at the Tulelake site. Entries Brigham and Steptoe were highest yielding at the Siskiyou site while entries DA 587-124, Brigham, and Statehood were highest yielding at the Tulelake site. In the three-year period 1998-2000, Statehood, Millennium, and Brigham were highest yielding at Tulelake while entries Statehood, Brigham, and Xena were highest yielding region-wide (Table 17).

WHEAT

Winter wheat. The intermountain winter wheat test contained 18 entries, including 13 cultivars and 5 advanced lines. Entries in the test, type of wheat, their backgrounds, and seed sources are shown in Table 18. Yield and agronomic performance data are given in Tables 19-20. There was very little disease pressure. Grain yields ranged from 3790 to 9040 lb/acre. Lambert was the highest yielding in 2000 and during the three-year period 1998-2000 (Table 20).

Fall-sown spring wheat. The fall-sown spring wheat test contained 59 entries, including 13 cultivars and 46 advanced lines. Entries in the test, type of wheat, their backgrounds, sites of evaluation, and seed sources are shown in Table 21. Yield, agronomic performance, and quality data are given in Tables 22-38. Weed pressure (primarily canarygrass) was severe at the Colusa site. Wet January and February conditions prevented timely weed control at UC Davis, where stands were reduced by weed competition (primarily minerís lettuce). Stripe rust was severe to very severe on many entries (Yecora Rojo, Cavalier, RSI 5, Brooks, Cuyama, YU 993-68, RSI 96WV535620, RSI 96WV54013, RSI 96W51402, WWW 8631B, YU 997-59, WWW BR 2238R, GM 40002, GM 40003, GM 40005, GM 40006, Beth Hashita, Yaniv, APB W97-268, APB W97-275, and Primavera Rojo) at one or more of the following sites: Colusa, UC Davis, Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, Madera, Kings, and Kern. Septoria tritici blotch was severe to very severe on many entries (Yecora Rojo, Klasic, Brooks, WWW BR 9246, GM 40002, GM 40003, GM 50002, APB W97-268, and APB W97-275) at one or more of the following sites: Butte, Colusa, Sutter, and UC Davis. Leaf rust was severe to very severe on many entries (Yecora Rojo, Yolo, Klasic, Serra, Cavalier, YU 993-68, RSI 96WV54013, WWW 8631B, YU 997-79, YU 997-137, GM 40002, GM 40003, and GM 40006) at one or more of the following sites: Butte, Colusa, Sutter, UC Davis, Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, Madera, Kings, and Kern. Powdery mildew was moderate to moderately severe at the Kern site. Lodging was very severe on all entries except Stander, RSI 96WV52305, and RSI 96WV54013 at the Kern site and severe on many entries at one or more of the following sites: Butte, Colusa, Sutter, and UC Davis. Shatter was severe on several entries (Express, RSI 5, WWW BR 9246, GM 40001, GM 40002, GM 40003, GM 40005, GM 40006, Dariel, UC 1268, Victoria 2000F, and Diana 2000F) at the Imperial site. Grain yield, bushel weight, and kernel weight were reduced by late-season moisture stress at the Imperial site. Grain protein content of samples from four sites in the Sacramento Valley and three sites in the San Joaquin Valley was measured by the California Wheat Commission laboratory (Table 36). Average grain protein content (12% moisture basis) ranged from 10.6% to 13.6% for samples from the Sacramento Valley sites and from 11.3% to 14.8% for samples from the San Joaquin Valley sites. Among entries tested at all sites, Yecora Rojo, Express, Brooks, UC 1208, Trigen T1052, and WWW BR 2238R all had average grain protein content of 13% or higher. Quality evaluations conducted by the California Wheat Commission laboratory on samples from the 2000 Kings site (Table 37) showed that the highest loaf volumes and overall bread scores were produced by cultivars Yecora Rojo, Klasic, Express, Cavalier, and Kern and advanced lines YU 997-135, GM 40002, RSI 96WV54013-W and Atir. Average grain yields ranged from 2720 lb/acre at the rainfed Yolo site to 6700 lb/acre at the Kings site. Entries Kama, RSI 96WV52305 and Bonus were the highest yielding in the Sacramento Valley; entries RSI 5, RSI 96WV52305, Atir, RSI 96W51402, RSI 96WV51505, Kern, Kama, and YU 993-68, in the San Joaquin Valley; entries Cavalier, Klasic, and Brooks, in the Imperial Valley; and entries Beth Hashita, WWW 8631B, Bonus, Yecora Rojo, and Cavalier, in rainfed areas. In the three-year period 1998-2000, RSI 96WV52305 and Bonus were the highest yielding in the Sacramento Valley; RSI 96WV52305, RSI 5, and RSI 96WV51505, in the San Joaquin Valley; Klasic, Brooks, and Cavalier, in the Imperial Valley; and Serra and Kern, in rainfed areas (Table 38).

Spring-sown spring wheat. The intermountain spring wheat test contained 22, including 14 cultivars and eight advanced lines. Entries in the test, type of wheat, their backgrounds, and seed sources are shown in Table 39. Yield and agronomic performance data are given in Tables 40-42. Severe drought stress occurred periodically during the season at the Siskiyou site. Low severities of BYDV occurred at both sites. Average yields ranged from 1910 lb/acre at the Siskiyou site to 7040 lb/acre at the Tulelake site. Entries SDM 50030 and Pristine were the highest yielding at the Siskiyou site while entries ID 0506 and Centennial were the highest yielding at the Tulelake site. In the three-year period 1998-2000, ID 0506 and Centennial were the highest yielding at Tulelake while ID 0506 and SDM 50030 were the highest yielding region-wide (Table 42).

Durum wheat. The durum wheat test contained 32 entries, including 17 cultivars and 15 advanced lines. Entries in the test, their backgrounds, and seed sources are shown in Table 43. Yield, agronomic performance, and quality data are given in Tables 44-53. Wet January and February conditions prevented timely weed control at UC Davis, where stands were reduced by weed competition (primarily minerís lettuce). Grain yield, bushel weight, and kernel weight were reduced by late-season moisture stress at the Imperial site. Lodging was severe on all entries at the Kern site and moderate to severe on many entries (Sky, UC D95-211, UC 1172, Platinum, UC1223, UC 1252, Matt, Kofa, APB D95-217, Kronos, Mohawk, Trump, YU 894-115, YU 8945-130, and Ria) at the UC Davis and/or Kings sites. Stripe rust was severe to very severe on Westbred 881 and Ocotillo at Kings and UC Davis. Powdery mildew was moderate to severe on several entries (Kronos, APB D95-217, and APBD97-228) at the Kern and/or Kings sites. Black point incidence was moderate at UC Davis and Kern; a few entries (APB D95-217, APB D97-228, and UC 1223) had relatively high black point severity at one or both sites. Grain protein content of samples from four of the sites was measured by the California Wheat Commission laboratory (Table 50). Average grain protein content (12% moisture basis) ranged from 13.0% at the Madera site to 14.5% at the Imperial site. All except four entries (Topper, UC 1171, UC 1172, and Sylvia 2000C) had average grain protein content of 13% or higher averaged over the four sites. Quality evaluations were conducted by the California Wheat Commission laboratory on samples from the Kings (Table 51) and Imperial (Table 52) sites. Samples of entries Kofa, Kronos, Matt, Sky, YU 894-115, YU 895-130, YU 895-82, and WWW D3121 from the Kings site had the highest pasta color scores. Average grain yields ranged from 4900 lb/acre at the Imperial site to 6300 lb/acre at the Madera site. Entries Platinum, Deluxe, and Duraking were the highest yielding in the San Joaquin Valley; and UC 1171 and APB D95-217, in the Imperial Valley. In the three-year period 1998-2000, UC 1172, UC 1171, and UC D95-211 were the highest yielding in the San Joaquin Valley; and UC 1171 and UC 1172, in the Imperial Valley (Table 53).

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Modified: 3 Jan 2003
Comments to Sue DiTomaso